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Auteur: Golding, William
Verslagtype: Uittreksels
Literatuurtype: Geen
Maker: Bekend
Taal: Engels
Vak: Engels
Commentaar: -
Cijfer: 8
Beoordeling scholier:  (5 stemmen)
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Golding, William
Lord of the flies

LET OP: Dit verslag is uitsluitend bedoeld als hulpmiddel bij het maken van je eigen verslag en niet om zomaar in te leveren bij je docent(e).

Titel: Lord of the flies (1954).
Schrijver: William Golding.
Uitgever: faber and faber.
Aantal pagina's: 248.

1. Samenvatting:

Two boys meet on the beach of a lagoon. One of them, called Ralph, is handsome, the other one, called Piggy, is fat and wears thick glasses. From their conversation it becomes clear that they belong to a group of children who were being transported somewhere after an atomic bomb had fallen on England. But their plane was attacked, and it had dropped the boys before it crashed. Piggy thinks that there are other boys alive and he wants to organize them.
The two boys find a conch shell and Piggy suggests that Ralph should blow on it to summon the other boys to come to a meeting. They are surprised at the loudness of the sound. Soon boys begin to answer Ralph's call. Piggy immediately begins to ask for names and tries to remember them.
There is also a party of choir boys, all dressed alike, and they march onto the beach in military order. Their leader, Jack, wants to be the leader of all the boys but the majority vote for Ralph. In order to gain Jack's support, Ralph suggests that the choir-boys can be hunters under Jack's leadership.
Ralph, Jack and another boy, called Simon, decide to go on, an expedition to find out if they are on an island or not. On their way up a mountain they come upon a wild piglet, which Jack wants to kill. He waits too long, however, and the piglet escapes.
When they return the boys have another meeting at which they try to establish some rules, because they now know that they are on an island and that they will have to look after themselves. Jack is delighted by the idea of punishing those who break the rules. No one pays any attention to the sensible advise that Piggy gives. When one of the little boys tells about a beast he has seen, all the boys begin to feel a little uneasy. Ralph says at the meeting that they will have to build a fire on the mountaintop as a signal for ships and planes.
Immediately Jack tells everyone to follow him and they all dash to the mountaintop. A huge pile of wood is made and the problem of the lack of matches is solved by using Piggy's glasses to start the fire. But soon the fire is out of control and the whole mountaintop burns. Piggy lectures the boys on their stupidity. At first no one pays any attention to what he says, but when Piggy says that one of the little ones is missing and may have been burned, they feel ashamed.
On the beach Ralph and Simon build huts, while most of the boys keep running off and rather swim in the lagoon than build huts. The boys enjoy having meetings and are enthusiastic about new ideas, but they quickly lose interest. At first Jack and his hunters cannot get any meat and when Ralph suggests that Jack had better help to build the huts, the growing antagonism between the boys becomes apparent.
Soon life on the island develops into a routine. The little boys play together and suffer from chronic diarrhoea. Jack and his hunters paint their faces because they think that the pigs will not see them so quickly, but their painted faces excite them and they behave like little savages when they start hunting again.
Later that afternoon Ralph and Piggy are lying on the beach and see the smoke of a ship, but to their astonishment they also see that the fire on the mountaintop is out. They run to the top and light the fire again, but the ship has already disappeared. Just at the moment when Ralph and Piggy realize that Jack and his hunters have neglected their duty of maintaining the fire, the hunters return with their first pig. They will not listen to criticism. The blood and the killing seem to have made them half-crazy and an angry Jack slaps Piggy in the face, breaking one of the lenses of his glasses.
Later that day the boys have a feast but Jack refuses to give Piggy any meat. Simon shares his piece with Piggy. After the meal the hunters start dancing in a savage way, re-enacting killing of the pig. After a while Ralph announces a meeting and walks down to the beach. He realizes that this meeting must be effective, otherwise the boys will lose all discipline. Ralph severely criticises them for not obeying the most elementary rules and for giving up too soon if a task is no longer considered pleasant. He explains again how important the fire is and talks about the fear that many of the boys have. Then Jack gives a speech in which he exploits this fear and when one boy after another talks about terrifying dreams and experiences, Ralph realizes that he has lost control of the group. Jack openly rebels and says he will not obey any rules. He leads all the boys away. Only Ralph, Piggy and Simon stay behind.
During the night a dead parachutist drops onto the island, but all the boys are asleep, even the twins, Sam and Eric, who are supposed to be watching the fire. The flapping of the parachute wakes them up and in terror they flee down to the beach and tell everyone about the beast that has attacked them. Their story even frightens Ralph a little. Jack calls for a hunt in which most of the boys join, since they are afraid to stay behind. They reach a hill they have not seen before. Steep cliffs give it the shape of a castle and the boys talk about building a fort there.
When Ralph tells them that they have to continue the search and that the fire has to be lit again, they obey only reluctantly. Later that day the boys fail to kill another pig, but again they are exhilarated by the idea of hunting and killing and they have another savage dance. One of the boys pretends to be the pig and is hurt by the excited dancers.
When the group finally reaches the top, after the search has been continued, they see a strange shadow, something like an ape and terrified they all run away.
The next day Jack takes the conch from Ralph and blows it in order to have a meeting at which he tells the boys that they have seen the beast and that Ralph is a coward and ought not to be chief. But this motion against Ralph does not get any support and Jack announces that he is going off on his own. Simon then proposes to go up the mountain to find the beast, but no one likes this idea. Piggy then suggests that they build a fire on the beach instead of on the mountaintop. When the fire is finally burning, however, Ralph and Piggy become aware that most of the bigger boys have disappeared in order to join Jack, who has gone to the other side of the island.
Jack leads his new tribe on a pig hunt and the head of the pig they catch is put up a pole as a gift to the beast. Later they raid Ralph's camp and steal fire. Jack announces that there will be a great feast that night.
Meanwhile, Simon has walked through the jungle and is staring at the pig's head, which is covered in flies. He suddenly imagines that the head - the Lord of the Flies - is speaking to him. It warns him that nobody can escape from the beast because the beast comes from within. Simon faints and when he revives he decides to climb the mountain. At the top he discovers the dead pilot and the parachute. He walks down to tell the other boys the truth about the beast.
Ralph and Piggy have also decided to go to Jack's beach. Here Ralph tries to re-establish his authority, but is unsuccessful. Later Jack orders his tribe to dance and this dance is another indication that the boys have lost most of the traces of civilization. When they see a black shape coming out of the jungle, they think it is the beast and in a frenzied attack they beat it to death. Only when it is dead do they realize that it is Simon.
The next morning Ralph and Piggy discover that everyone has joined Jack, except the twins Sam and Eric and some small boys. Ralph feels partly responsible for Simon's death, but Piggy tries to comfort him.
On Castle Rock Jack rules like a tyrant. He warns his tribe against Ralph and Piggy. He says they are dangerous and he sets guards at the gate. During the night he raids Ralph's camp again and when the attackers have withdrawn, Piggy finds that his glasses have been stolen.
In the morning Ralph and the other three boys discuss their situation. Not only is Piggy practically blind, but they are also unable to build another signal fire. Therefore they go to Jack's camp and try to reason with him, but this meeting ends in a fight between Jack and Ralph. The twins are taken prisoner by the hunters. One of Jack's boys, a little sadist called Roger, topples a heavy boulder over an edge, and Piggy, who cannot see the danger, is swept over the cliff by this piece of rock. The conch he has been carrying is shattered. Ralph manages to escape although Jack orders his hunters to throw spears after him. He hides in the jungle and tries to understand how a group of ordinary boys can turn into a band of uncivilized, barbaric savages.
At night Ralph secretly visits Jack's camp and is informed by the twins that the next day there will be a big hunt with Ralph as the prey. The brush where he is hiding is set on fire in the morning and he is forced to run for his life. Although the fire spreads rapidly the hunt is continued and Ralph is slowly driven to the beach. Just when he is about to give up, he looks up and sees a man in a naval uniform standing in front of him. This officer tells him he has seen their smoke and has come to rescue hem. At the sight of the officer Jack and his savages have stopped in silence.
The officer is shocked when he learns that two boys have been killed and that the boys have been acting like savages. When Ralph thinks of what has happened and that he is safe now, he starts crying. Soon the other boys, who have come nearer, start crying, too.

2. Hoofdpersonen:

Ralph is de held van het verhaal. Onder andere omstandigheden zou hij zeker de leider van de groep zijn geweest en gebleven. Hij is dapper en hij probeert, ondanks dat hij zwak en hulpeloos is, de groep toch bij elkaar te houden, en regels en wetten te blijven handhaven. Hij geeft niet, zoals bijna alle anderen, toe aan de verleiding van de totale vrijheid, van een wereld zonder regels, waar iedereen gewoon zijn eigen gang kan gaan.
Piggy is een jongen die Ralph trouw blijft en adviseert. Hij heeft enkele handicaps: hij is dik, heeft astma, hele slechte ogen, en daardoor een bril met hele dikke glazen, en door deze handicaps is hij niet populair. Maar hij is wel intelligent en eerlijk, en daardoor wint hij de sympathie van Ralph, maar niet die van Jack.
Jack is de tegenstander van Ralph. Hij is een echte rebel en wil de leider zijn. Dit lukt hem later ook, als hij de leider van de andere jongens wordt. Jack gaat zich in de loop van het boek steeds primitiever gedragen.

3. Titelverklaring:

De titel Lord of the flies is de vertaling van Beëlzebub, de benaming van de duivel in het oude testament. Daarmee wordt dus het kwaad bedoeld, dat in het boek gesymboliseerd wordt door de kop van de zeug, die aan het monster geofferd wordt. Ook wordt daarmee het geestelijke verval van de jongens duidelijk gemaakt; wanner de jongens de varkenskop offeren, zijn ze eigenlijk wilden geworden.

4. Thema:

Het thema van het boek is het kwaad dat ieder mens in zich heeft, en dat naar buiten komt zodra er geen regels en wetten meer zijn, waardoor het kwaad onder controle wordt gehouden. Als er geen regels of wetten meer zijn wordt het gezonde verstand bij ieder mens overschaduwd door primitiviteit en kwaad.
In het boek zie je die geestelijke verandering ook goed. Zelfs Ralph weet op een gegeven moment niet eens meer wat nou ook alweer het nut is van het vuur. Het boek is eigenlijk een waarschuwing voor wat er kan gebeuren als er geen orde, regels en leiderschap meer zouden zijn.

5. Plaats en tijd:

Een groep jongens is geïsoleerd op een tropisch eiland met een strand, een berg, een kasteelachtige rots en een jungle. Het verhaal speelt zich ergens in de toekomst af nadat Engeland met een atoombom is aangevallen. Het is nog steeds oorlog als de jongens op het eiland stranden.

6. Dingen die opvallen:

Het boek is niet echt moeilijk om te lezen, er staan maar een paar moeilijke woorden in.

7. Meest boeiende passage:
Literal quotation:
Daring, indignant, Piggy took the conch.
"That's what I said! I said about our meetings and things and then you said shut up---"
His voice lifted into the whine of virtuous recrimination. They stirred and began to shout him down.
“You said you wanted a small fire and you been and built a pile like a hayrick. If I say anything," cried Piggy, with bitter realism, "you say shut up; but if Jack or Maurice or Simon---“
He paused in the tumult, standing, looking beyond them and down the unfriendly side of the mountain to the great patch where they had found dead wood. Then he laughed so strangely that they were hushed, looking at the flash of his spectacles in astonishment. They followed his gaze to find the sour joke.
"You got your small fire all right."
Smoke was rising here and there among the creepers that festooned the dead or dying trees.
Page number: 56/57
Why: I think this is the best part of the story, because it is the beginning of become savages, they don’t think before they do something. Piggy who does think is being attacked, but later the other guys all feel ashamed because Piggy was right.

8. Eigen mening:

Ik vond het boek redelijk goed. Het was niet echt moeilijk om te lezen en het was ook leuk om te lezen. Het was spannend om te lezen. Ik vind het knap zoals de schrijver de sfeer beschrijft, want die verandert drastisch in het boek, en dat kun je goed merken. Ik vind dat het thema van het boek erg duidelijk te zien is in het boek, en die sfeer heeft het boek ook, dat weet de schrijver erg goed te beschrijven.

9. Verwerkingsopdracht E 26:

William Golding is in 1911 in Engeland geboren. Hij heeft Engelse literatuur gestudeerd in Oxford. In de Tweede Wereld Oorlog heeft hij in de Royal Navy gediend. Na de oorlog was hij een leraar en een schrijver. "Lord of the Flies" was zijn eerste boek en was meteen erg goed. In 1983 heeft hij de "Nobel Prize for Literature" gekregen. Hij is in 1993 in Wiltshire, Engeland, gestorven. Het boek "Lord of the flies" gaat erover hoe mensen in wilden kunnen veranderen als ze geen orde en regels meer hebben. Het gaat over oorlog en moord. Golding heeft zelf ook in het leger gezeten en daarna is hij gaan schrijven. Ik denk dat hij zijn verhaal wel een beetje op zijn eigen belevingen heeft gebaseerd. In de oorlog zal hij ook wel gruwelijke dingen hebben meegemaakt en ook hebben gezien hoe mensen kunnen veranderen in monsters, en hoe ze zo kunnen doden en vernietigen. Echte situaties en personages van de schrijver kan je in het boek niet echt terug vinden.
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